Brain is one of the most important organs of a body which controls various functions of the body. Brain governs one’s intelligence, emotion, memory and creativity. Brain is mainly composed of 3 main parts cerebrum, cerebellum and brainstem. Brain receives information from the five senses in the body which includes touch, smell, sight, taste and hearing. Brain also controls ones speech, memory, thoughts, movement of arms and legs as well. The central nervous system is composed of the brain and the spinal cord while the peripheral nervous system has spinal nerves which branch from spinal cord and cranial nerves from the brain.
- Cerebrum: Cerebrum is the largest part of the brain which is composed of left and right hemispheres. It performs highest functions like the vision, hearing and interpretation of touch, speech, emotions, reasoning, fine control of movement and learning.
- Cerebellum: this is located just under the cerebrum part of the brain and it helps in the coordination of movement of muscles, balance and to maintain posture.
- Brainstem: This works as relay center by connecting the cerebellum with cerebrum to spinal cord. It helps in the automatic functions of the body like breathing, body temperature, digestion, coughing, swallowing, heart rate, wake and sleep cycles, sneezing, vomiting.
The left brain and right brain: Cerebrum is mainly divided into 2 halves as the left and right hemispheres. These two parts are joined with a bundle of fibers known as corpus callosum which transmits messages from one side to another. Each hemisphere will control the opposite side of the body. When a person is attacked by a stroke one right side of the brain, the left arm or leg of the person may become weak and paralyzed depending on the severity. The left hemisphere usually controls comprehension, writing, speech and arithmetic. Right hemisphere controls the artistic, spatial ability, creativity and musical skills. Its dominant in usage of hand and controls language in about 92% of the people.
Various lobes of the brain: Cerebral hemispheres have various fissures that divide the brain into lobes. Each hemisphere has 4 lobes like the frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital and based on the specific functions they are again divided. These lobes doesn’t work individually. They have complex relationships between each lobes of the brain and the left and right hemisphere. The following are the various lobes present in our brain:
- Frontal lobe: This is mainly related to one’s personality, emotions and behavior. It also helps in planning solving problems and judgement. Speech, speaking and writing, body movement, intelligence, self awareness and concentration are all managed and controlled by the frontal lobe present in our brain.
- Parietal lobe: This lobe interprets words and language. It reads the sense of pain, touch and temperature. It also has the ability to interpret signals from motor, sensory, memory, vision and hearing. The visual and spatial perception is also controlled by parietal lobes.
- Occipital lobe: Interprets vision.
Temporal lobe: Helps in understanding language, hearing, memory, organizing and sequencing.